A History of World War IIII think WWIII was one part of the century+ long Eugenics Wars, explaining the confusion between those two wars and the confusion regarding the length of time the Eugenics Wars lasted.
In later years the Augment Revolt of 2154 was even included as part of the Eugenics Wars by some historians, explaining why a certain Starfleet admiral thought it happened 200 years before the era of DS9.
The Eugenics Wars began with the Gulf War of 2001, where the assassination of Saddam Hussein left a power vacuum in Iraq that allowed Khan and his followers (created by Stavros Kenucleus and others as genetically engineered supersoldiers for both sides during the Cold War but whom escaped after they were to be kept in "isolation" -read inprisonement - once the Cold War was over) to lead a revolution to unite all of the major Islamic regions of the world from Africa to China to Russia to South-East Asia.
The devastating war to defeat Khan and the continued fight against many of his followers (one of which formed the Eastern Coalition in China and South-East Asia) killed 37+ million people directly and millions more through starvation and disease and created a global economic collapse.
During this time numerous advanced space projects were shelved to fund greater domestic spending. This is why there is a gap in advanced space projects between Nomad and Ares IV, punctuated by occasional breakthroughs in 2018 that made sleeper ships obselete.
The European Union collapsed during this time and groups like the Neo-Trotskyists arose in France and other areas. The Caribbean also experienced rebel fighting during this period. Terrorism returned to Northern Ireland in force during this period, resulting in budget strapped UK forces pulling out of the region and forced reunification of the north and south.
The governments had to deal with poverty strickin populaces without work or means to provide basic needs for their families. Crime was rampant and the prisons were overflowing, prompting governments to use mind-control devices consisting of brain chips working in concert with highly addictive drugs that the prisoners had to have to keep from going insane to pacify criminals without having to keep them behind prison walls. This created a prison slave class of millions that performed work for free while serving out their sentences.
Simultaneously, Sanctuary Districts were set-up to provide basic needs to families who couldn't take care of themselves. Originally benevolent in purpose, as the Sanctuary Districts continued to grow they were walled in and became de facto prisons for the dispossed and unemployed. This situation persisted until the Bell Riots exposed government wrongdoing and ended the Sanctuary Districts within several years.
Their was a brief period of recovery punctuated by great scientific achievements like the Ares IV mission during this time. The loss of the Charybdis however, one in a long line of "lost" deep space missions, effectively ended this renaissance period of deep space exploration.
Eventually, after years of protests, the mind control situation around the world was exposed and ended in one coordinated act of misguided violent activism. A group jammed the control signal of all the prisoners simultaneously, thus freeing them of their control upon a unsuspecting populace with no walls seperating them from millions of angry prisoners with full memories of their experiences during this time. The prisoners, on withdrawels from their drugs, went insane and started destroying everything in sight. The bloody Mind Control Revolts resulted in hundreds of thousands of deaths and inumerable property destruction around the world before all the prisoners were again killed or subdued. This ended the mind control experiments at prisons around the world and resulted in the creation of the New Zealand Penal Colony, the largest such penal colony ever created.
The global economic collapse was back in full force, not helped by the destruction and sinking of much of Los Angeles by the Hermosa Quake of 2046.
A child of one of Khan's warlords, Lee Kuan, rose to power in the Eastern Coalition, which up to this point had previously concerned itself with maintaining it's borders against UN forces. Against treaty stipulations that allowed only communications, weather, and other peaceful-use satellites to be launched, he secretly began launching ECON (Eastern Coalition Orbital Nuclear) satellites armed with all manner of weapons for decapitating an enemy nation in a first strike nuclear attack.
Once this was discovered, the UN nations began rearming to try and force a stalemate and Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD). Not wanting a new Cold War that would hinder his plans for global domination, Kuan decided to launch a first strike before those nations could arm themselves.
A genetically enhanced Augment named Green, who had been infiltrated into the USAF along with other Augments in government positions around the world, rose to become a Colonel at the US Space Command at NORAD. He sabotaged the early warning systems, thus allowing Kuan's ECON satellites to launch a devastating first strike attack against US and NATO command and control and military facilities.
It was a counterstrike attack, meant to disable a countries ability to make war while minimizing damage to it's cities and populations wherever possible. Lee Kuan wanted to conquer these nations, not destroy them. Enhanced radiation neutron bombs, chemical and biological weapons, and high altitude airbursts were used wherever possible to leave most of the major cities unpowered but largely intact. This explains the large number of surviving cities and monuments in the future and the (relatively) low death toll for a global nuclear war.
Kuan's plans did not work out however, as the Russian's nuclear arsenal was still intact (the operatives designed to take out their system failed) and they responded with a full nuclear barrage on the Eastern Coalition before the EC's drug-addicted soldiers (a holdover from the Mind-Control Revolts) could fully invade targets around the world. This was followed by NATO immediately afterwards once they retrieved control of their nuclear arsenals. China and much of East Asia was devastated and entered a "post-atomic horror" without rule of law. Rogue ECON satellites with their AI defense systems sometimes still caused problems when nations would try and dismantle them.
Colonel Green, escaping amongst accusations of treason in the US, established his own fiefdom in one of the Eastern Coalition allied nations in Africa and euthanized hundreds of thousands of radiation poisoned people.
UN forces entered Asia and fought for control of the Eastern Coalition, but many of the Augments escaped to allied nations in Africa and elsewhere.
Recovery in the West went much smoother due to the minimal amount of physical damage. Mostly it was radiation and bio/chemical hazard cleanup. Projects like the first warp drive were pursued by Zefram Cochrane, and it's success led to first contact with the Vulcans in 2063.
Vulcan emissaries visited infrequently over the next two decades, laying the ground rules for diplomatic ties between Earth and Vulcan. They provided economic, technical, and medical aid that allowed for the western nations to recover from the war much faster then their EC counterparts.
The last gasp of the Eugenics Wars and the Eastern Coalition itself came in 2078, when Green and Kuan coordinated their drug-controlled forces and launched a Battle of the Bulge style all-out attack against UN forces closing in on them in Africa and Asia. Captain Archer's grandfather fought in this war. The war lasted only a year, when the superior UN forces with their Vulcan technology and control of the aerospace battlefield finally conquered the Augments once and for all in Africa and Asia.
A new renaissance was beginning. The defunct European Union reformed into the newer, stronger European Hegenomy. In 2079, the North American Republic joined with the EH and formed the New United Nations World Government. Within decades all of the nations of the world, including the former ECON states, were united under one government.
The Vulcans however were not pleased with the use of their technology to end the war, and began a policy of holding back on technology sharing with the Humans until it could be proven that they were trustworthy enough to be given this technology and join the community of nearby species of the galaxy.
The separate Martian colonies, upset by N.U.N. decision making for the colonies without representation in the government, allied and elected Maurice Picard their leader. A bloodless revolt with little more then saber-rattling after the Fundamental Declaration of the Martian Colonies, led to those colonies being unified and granted full status in the NUN in 2113.
The last former ECON nation joined the N.U.N. in 2151, and the world was truly at peace and unified. However, their was a brief revolt by Augments in 2154 that had been stolen from Cold Station 12 by Dr. Arik Soong. Many historians don't agree, but some see this and the joining of the last ECON nation in 2151 as the true end of the Eugenics Wars and the beginning of the new era.
That's off the top of my head and I didn't really look up anything, so let me know if there's any mistakes, but I think it's mostly accurate. It's just meant to be a brief overview of the entire conflict rather then an in-depth timeline.
(Theory by Bond, James Bond)